_   _ ____  _

  Project                     ___| | | |  _ \| |

                             / __| | | | |_) | |

                            | (__| |_| |  _ <| |___

                             \___|\___/|_| \_\_____|

 

NAME

       curl - transfer a URL

 

SYNOPSIS

       curl [options] [URL...]

 

DESCRIPTION

       curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the

       supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,  IMAP,

       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS,

       TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without user  inter-

       action.

        curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-

       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file  trans-

       fer  resume,  Metalink,  and more. As you will see below, the number of

       features will make your head spin!

 

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related  features.  See

       libcurl(3) for details.

 

URL

       The  URL  syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-

       tion in RFC 3986.

 

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets

       within braces as in:

 

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

 

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

 

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

 

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next

       to each other:

 

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

 

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.  They  will  be

       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

 

       You  can  specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number

       or letter:

 

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt

        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

 

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to

       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but

       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For  exam-

       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to

       speak FTP.

 

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL.  It  is  not

       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but

       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

 

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so

       that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con-

       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on

       files  specified  on  a  single command line and cannot be used between

       separate curl invokes.

 

PROGRESS METER

       curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating

       the  amount  of  transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time

       left, etc.

 

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you  invoke

       curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,

       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output

       mixing progress meter and response data.

 

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to

       redirect the response output to a file, using shell  redirect  (>),  -o

       [file] or similar.

 

       It  is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit

       out any response data to the terminal.

 

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your

       friend.

OPTIONS

       Options  start  with  one or two dashes. Many of the options require an

       addition value next to it.

 

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d  for  example,  may  be

       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space

       is a recommended separator. The long  "double-dash"  form,  --data  for

       example, requires a space between it and its value.

 

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used

       immediately next to each other, like for example you  can  specify  all

       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

 

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again

       disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option  name

       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and

       show the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options  was

       added  in  7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off on

       repeated use of the same command line option.)

 

       -#, --progress-bar

              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar  instead  of

              the standard, more informational, meter.

 

       -0, --http1.0

              (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its

              internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

 

       --http1.1

              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the  internal

              default version. (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       --http2.0

              (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue its requests using HTTP 2.0. This

              requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to  support  it.

              (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       -1, --tlsv1

              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a

              remote TLS server.

 

       -2, --sslv2

              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a

              remote SSL server.

 

       -3, --sslv3

              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a

              remote SSL server.

 

       -4, --ipv4

              If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple  IP  ver-

              sions  (which  it  is  if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells

              curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

 

       -6, --ipv6

              If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple  IP  ver-

              sions  (which  it  is  if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells

              curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

 

       -a, --append

              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append

              to  the  target  file  instead  of  overwriting  it. If the file

              doesn't exist, it will be  created.   Note  that  this  flag  is

              ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

 

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>

              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.

              Some  badly  done  CGIs  fail  if  this  field  isn't   set   to

              "Mozilla/4.0".  To  encode  blanks  in  the string, surround the

              string with single quote marks. This can also be  set  with  the

              -H, --header option of course.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --anyauth

              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,

              and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.

              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-

              headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.

              This  is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication

              method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and

              --negotiate.

 

              Note  that  using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads

              from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and  then

              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when

              uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

 

       -b, --cookie <name=data>

              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is  sup-

              posedly  the data previously received from the server in a "Set-

              Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format  "NAME1=VALUE1;

              NAME2=VALUE2".

 

              If  no  '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a file-

              name to use to read previously stored cookie lines  from,  which

              should  be used in this session if they match. Using this method

              also activates the "cookie parser" which will make  curl  record

              incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in

              combination with the -L, --location option. The file  format  of

              the  file  to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or

              the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

 

              NOTE that the file specified with -b, --cookie is only  used  as

              input.  No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,

              use the -c, --cookie-jar option or you could even save the  HTTP

              headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -B, --use-ascii

              (FTP/LDAP)  Enable  ASCII  transfer.  For  FTP, this can also be

              enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A".  This  option

              causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

 

       --basic

              (HTTP)  Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the

              default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use  it

              to  override  a  previously  set  option  that  sets a different

              authentication method (such as --ntlm,  --digest,  or  --negoti-

              ate).

 

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>

              (HTTP)  Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies

              after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies  previously

              read  from a specified file as well as all cookies received from

              remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be writ-

              ten.  The  file  will  be written using the Netscape cookie file

              format. If you set the file name to  a  single  dash,  "-",  the

              cookies will be written to stdout.

 

              This  command  line  option will activate the cookie engine that

              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is

              to use the -b, --cookie option.

 

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl

              operation won't fail or even report an error clearly.  Using  -v

              will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feed-

              back you get about this possibly lethal situation.

 

              If this option is used several times, the  last  specified  file

              name will be used.

 

       -C, --continue-at <offset>

              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file transfer at the given offset.

              The given offset is the exact  number  of  bytes  that  will  be

              skipped,  counting  from the beginning of the source file before

              it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the

              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

 

              Use  "-C  -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to

              resume the transfer. It then uses the given  output/input  files

              to figure that out.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>

              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list

              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL  cipher

              list           details           on           this          URL:

              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

 

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL  and  GnuTLS.  The

              full  list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this

              URL:                                          http://git.fedora-

              hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --compressed

              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms

              curl supports, and save  the  uncompressed  document.   If  this

              option  is  used  and  the server sends an unsupported encoding,

              curl will report an error.

 

       --connect-timeout <seconds>

              Maximum time in seconds that you allow  the  connection  to  the

              server  to  take.   This  only limits the connection phase, once

              curl has connected this option is of no more use.  Since 7.32.0,

              this  option accepts decimal values, but the actual timeout will

              decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in deci-

              mal precision. See also the -m, --max-time option.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --create-dirs

              When  used  in  conjunction with the -o option, curl will create

              the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed.  This  option

              creates  the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If

              the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions  already

              exist, no dir will be created.

 

              To  create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-

              create-dirs.

 

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

 

       --crlfile <file>

              (HTTPS/FTPS) Provide a file using PEM format with a  Certificate

              Revocation  List  that may specify peer certificates that are to

              be considered revoked.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>

              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request  to  the  HTTP

              server,  in  the  same  way  that a browser does when a user has

              filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This  will

              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type

              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

 

              -d, --data is the same as  --data-ascii.  To  post  data  purely

              binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-

              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

 

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same  com-

              mand  line,  the  data  pieces specified will be merged together

              with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d

              skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like

              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

 

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest  should  be  a

              file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read

              the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-

              ing  data  from  a  file  named 'foobar' would thus be done with

              --data @foobar. When --data is told to read  from  a  file  like

              that, carriage returns and newlines will be stripped out.

 

       -D, --dump-header <file>

              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

 

              This  option  is handy to use when you want to store the headers

              that an HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the  headers  could

              then  be  read  in  a  second  curl  invocation by using the -b,

              --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a better

              way to store cookies.

 

              When  used  in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered

              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --data-ascii <data>

              See -d, --data.

 

       --data-binary <data>

              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no  extra  pro-

              cessing whatsoever.

 

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a

              filename.  Data is posted in a similar  manner  as  --data-ascii

              does,  except  that  newlines and carriage returns are preserved

              and conversions are never done.

 

              If this option is used several times,  the  ones  following  the

              first will append data as described in -d, --data.

 

       --data-urlencode <data>

              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with

              the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin  with  a  name

              followed  by a separator and a content specification. The <data>

              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

 

              content

                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that

                     on.  Just  be careful so that the content doesn't contain

                     any = or @ symbols, as that will  then  make  the  syntax

                     match one of the other cases below!

 

              =content

                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that

                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

 

              name=content

                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and  pass

                     that  on.  Note that the name part is expected to be URL-

                     encoded already.

 

              @filename

                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file

                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass

                     it on in the POST.

 

              name@filename

                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file

                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass

                     it on in the POST. The  name  part  gets  an  equal  sign

                     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note

                     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

 

       --delegation LEVEL

              Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when

              it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

 

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

 

              policy Delegates  if  and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set

                     in the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is  a  matter  of

                     realm policy.

 

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

 

       --digest

              (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-

              cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over

              the  wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the normal

              -u, --user option to  set  user  name  and  password.  See  also

              --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

 

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is

              used.

 

       --disable-eprt

              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands

              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first

              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with  this

              option,  it  will  use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are exten-

              sions to the original FTP protocol, and  may  not  work  on  all

              servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than

              the traditional PORT command.

 

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt

              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

 

              Disabling  EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to

              switch to passive mode you need to not  use  -P,  --ftp-port  or

              force it with --ftp-pasv.

 

       --disable-epsv

              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable  the use of the EPSV command when

              doing passive FTP transfers. Curl  will  normally  always  first

              attempt  to  use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will

              not try using EPSV.

 

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv

              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

 

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to

              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

 

       --dns-interface <interface>

              Tell curl to send outgoing  DNS  requests  through  <interface>.

              This  option  is  a  counterpart  to --interface (which does not

              affect DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name  (not

              an address).

 

              This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver

              backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the

              only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       --dns-ipv4-addr <ip-address>

              Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS requests,

              so that the DNS requests originate from this address. The  argu-

              ment should be a single IPv4 address.

 

              This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver

              backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the

              only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       --dns-ipv6-addr <ip-address>

              Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS requests,

              so that the DNS requests originate from this address. The  argu-

              ment should be a single IPv6 address.

 

              This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver

              backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the

              only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       --dns-servers <ip-address,ip-address>

              Set  the  list  of  DNS servers to be used instead of the system

              default.  The list of IP addresses should be separated with com-

              mas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-number>

              after each IP address.

 

              This option requires that libcurl  was  built  with  a  resolver

              backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the

              only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

 

       -e, --referer <URL>

              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP  server.

              This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When

              used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer

              URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol-

              lows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be  used  alone,

              even if you don't set an initial --referer.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>

              (SSL)  Tells  curl  to use the specified client certificate file

              when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto-

              col.  The  certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if using Secure

              Transport, or PEM format if using  any  other  engine.   If  the

              optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the

              terminal. Note that this option  assumes  a  "certificate"  file

              that  is  the  private  key and the private certificate concate-

              nated! See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

 

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library  then  this  option

              can  tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the

              NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or  by

              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (lib-

              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may  be  loaded.  If  you

              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it

              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with  a  nickname.

              If  the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\" so

              that it is not recognized as password delimiter.  If  the  nick-

              name  contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it is

              not recognized as an escape character.

 

              (iOS and Mac OS X only) If curl is built against  Secure  Trans-

              port,  then  the  certificate string can either be the name of a

              certificate/private key in the system or user keychain,  or  the

              path  to  a  PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If you

              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it

              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --engine <name>

              Select  the  OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.

              Use --engine list  to  print  a  list  of  build-time  supported

              engines.  Note  that  not  all  (or  none) of the engines may be

              available at run-time.

 

       --environment

              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using  the

              names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of use-

              ful information after having run curl.

 

       --egd-file <file>

              (SSL) Specify the path name  to  the  Entropy  Gathering  Daemon

              socket.  The  socket  is  used to seed the random engine for SSL

              connections. See also the --random-file option.

 

       --cert-type <type>

              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided  certificate

              is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,

              PEM is assumed.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --cacert <CA certificate>

              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify

              the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The

              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built  to

              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to

              alter that default file.

 

              curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'

              if  it  is  set,  and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert

              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

 

              The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for  a  CA

              certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-

              tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any

              folder along your PATH.

 

              If  curl  is  built  against  the  NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM

              PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to  be  available  for  this

              option to work properly.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --capath <CA certificate directory>

              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified certificate directory to

              verify the peer. Multiple paths can be  provided  by  separating

              them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must

              be in PEM format, and if curl  is  built  against  OpenSSL,  the

              directory  must  have  been processed using the c_rehash utility

              supplied with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow  OpenSSL-powered

              curl  to  make  SSL-connections much more efficiently than using

              --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

 

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,

              and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -f, --fail

              (HTTP)  Fail  silently (no output at all) on server errors. This

              is mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal  with

              failed  attempts.  In  normal cases when an HTTP server fails to

              deliver a document, it  returns  an  HTML  document  stating  so

              (which  often  also describes why and more). This flag will pre-

              vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

 

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where  non-

              successful  response  codes  will  slip through, especially when

              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

 

       -F, --form <name=content>

              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which  a  user

              has  pressed  the  submit  button. This causes curl to POST data

              using the  Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC

              2388.  This  enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the

              'content' part to be a file, prefix the  file  name  with  an  @

              sign.  To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file

              name with the symbol <. The difference between @ and <  is  then

              that  @  makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload,

              while the < makes a text field and just  get  the  contents  for

              that text field from a file.

 

              Example,  to send your password file to the server, where 'pass-

              word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be

              the input:

 

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

 

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the file-

              name. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

 

              You can also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use  by  using

              'type=', in a manner similar to:

 

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

 

              or

 

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

 

              You  can  also explicitly change the name field of a file upload

              part by setting filename=, like this:

 

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

 

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by  dou-

              ble-quotes like:

 

              curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

 

              or

 

              curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

 

              Note  that  if  a  filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any

              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by

              backslash.

 

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

 

              This option can be used multiple times.

 

       --ftp-account [data]

              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name

              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using  the

              ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>

              (FTP)  If  authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,

              send this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure

              Transport  server  over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using

              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from

              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

 

       --ftp-create-dirs

              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an  FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that

              doesn't currently exist on the server, the standard behavior  of

              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to

              create missing directories.

 

       --ftp-method [method]

              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on  an

              FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one of the follow-

              ing alternatives:

 

              multicwd

                     curl does a single CWD operation for each  path  part  in

                     the  given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many

                     commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it  should  be  done.

                     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

 

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR

                     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-

                     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

 

              singlecwd

                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then

                     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in  the  multicwd

                     case).  This  is  somewhat  more standards compliant than

                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       (Added in 7.15.1)

 

       --ftp-pasv

              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the

              internal  default behavior, but using this option can be used to

              override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

 

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is

              used.  Undoing  an  enforced passive really isn't doable but you

              must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

 

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and

              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

 

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip

              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in

              its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data

              connection.  Instead  curl  will  re-use  the same IP address it

              already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

 

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead

              of PASV.

 

       --ftp-pret

              (FTP)  Tell  curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).

              Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard

              command  for  directory  listings as well as up and downloads in

              PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

 

       --ftp-ssl-ccc

              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS

              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-

              munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-

              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-

              ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

 

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]

              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets  the  CCC  mode.  The

              passive  mode  will  not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait

              for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from

              the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for

              a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

 

       --ftp-ssl-control

              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP  login,  clear  for  transfer.

              Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers

              for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server  doesn't  sup-

              port SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but will

              be removed in a future version.

 

       --form-string <name=string>

              (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value  string  for  the

              named  parameter  is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' charac-

              ters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special mean-

              ing. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility

              that the string value may accidentally trigger the  '@'  or  '<'

              features of --form.

 

       -g, --globoff

              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set

              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters  {}[]

              without  having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that

              these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they  should

              be encoded according to the URI standard.

 

       -G, --get

              When  used,  this  option  will make all data specified with -d,

              --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an  HTTP

              GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be

              used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data  will  instead  be

              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

 

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is

              used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you

              should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

 

       -H, --header <header>

              (HTTP)  Extra  header  to  use  when getting a web page. You may

              specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add

              a  custom  header  that has the same name as one of the internal

              ones curl would use, your externally set  header  will  be  used

              instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trick-

              ier stuff than curl would normally do. You  should  not  replace

              internally  set  headers  without  knowing  perfectly  well what

              you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a  replacement

              without  content  on  the  right  side  of  the colon, as in: -H

              "Host:". If you send the custom header with  no-value  then  its

              header  must  be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-Cus-

              tom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

 

              curl will make sure that each header  you  add/replace  is  sent

              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that

              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage

              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

 

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

 

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove

              multiple headers.

 

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>

              (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The

              string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's

              public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless

              the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

 

       --ignore-content-length

              (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length header. This is particularly

              useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report  incor-

              rect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

 

       -i, --include

              (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header

              includes things like server-name, date of  the  document,  HTTP-

              version and more...

 

       -I, --head

              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature

              the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but  the  header

              of  a  document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays

              the file size and last modification time only.

 

       --interface <name>

              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can  enter

              interface  name,  IP address or host name. An example could look

              like:

 

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -j, --junk-session-cookies

              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this

              option  will  make  it  discard all "session cookies". This will

              basically have the same effect as if a new session  is  started.

              Typical  browsers  always  discard  session cookies when they're

              closed down.

 

       -J, --remote-header-name

              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the

              server-specified   Content-Disposition   filename   instead   of

              extracting a filename from the URL.

 

              There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in  the  provided

              file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected

              file names.

 

       -k, --insecure

              (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to  perform  "insecure"

              SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted

              to be made secure by using the CA certificate  bundle  installed

              by  default.  This  makes  all connections considered "insecure"

              fail unless -k, --insecure is used.

 

              See    this    online    resource    for    further     details:

              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

 

       -K, --config <config file>

              Specify  which config file to read curl arguments from. The con-

              fig file is a text file in which command line arguments  can  be

              written  which  then will be used as if they were written on the

              actual command line.

 

              Options and their parameters must be specified on the same  con-

              fig  file  line,  separated  by whitespace, colon, or the equals

              sign. Long option names can optionally be given  in  the  config

              file  without  the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or

              equals characters can be used as separators. If  the  option  is

              specified  with  one  or  two  dashes,  there can be no colon or

              equals character between the option and its parameter.

 

              If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be

              enclosed  within  quotes.  Within  double  quotes, the following

              escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n,  \r  and  \v.  A

              backslash  preceding  any  other letter is ignored. If the first

              column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line

              will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical

              line in the config file.

 

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to  make  curl  read

              the file from stdin.

 

              Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you

              need to specify it using the --url option,  and  not  by  simply

              writing  the  URL  on its own line. So, it could look similar to

              this:

 

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

 

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a

              default  config  file  and  uses it if found. The default config

              file is checked for in the following places in this order:

 

              1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first  checks  for  the

              CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,

              it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns the  home

              dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then

              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-

              PROFILE%\Application Data'.

 

              2)  On  windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it

              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On

              UNIX-like  systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the

              determined home dir.

 

              # --- Example file ---

              # this is a comment

              url = "curl.haxx.se"

              output = "curlhere.html"

              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

 

              # and fetch another URL too

              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"

              -O

              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"

              # --- End of example file ---

 

              This option can be used multiple times to load  multiple  config

              files.

 

       --keepalive-time <seconds>

              This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle

              before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual

              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems

              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options

              (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no

              effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

 

       --key <key>

              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-

              vate key in this separate file.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --key-type <type>

              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-

              vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not

              specified, PEM is assumed.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --krb <level>

              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must  be

              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or

              'private'. Should you use a level that  is  not  one  of  these,

              'private' will instead be used.

 

              This  option  requires  a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI

              (GSS-Negotiate) support. This is not very common. Use -V, --ver-

              sion to see if your curl supports it.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -l, --list-only

              (FTP)  When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-

              only view. This is  especially  useful  if  the  user  wants  to

              machine-parse  the contents of an FTP directory since the normal

              directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When  used

              like  this,  the  option causes a NLST command to be sent to the

              server instead of LIST.

 

              Note: Some FTP servers list only  files  in  their  response  to

              NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

 

              (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch

              forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is

              particularly  useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes-

              sage id exists on the server and what size it is.

 

              Note: When combined with -X, --request  <command>,  this  option

              can be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use

              the email's unique identifier rather than  it's  message  id  to

              make the request. (Added in 7.21.5)

 

       -L, --location

              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the server reports that the requested page has

              moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header

              and  a  3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the

              request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or

              -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When

              authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials  to  the

              initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it

              won't be able to intercept the user+password. See  also  --loca-

              tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of

              redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

 

              When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain  GET

              (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with

              a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response

              code  was  any  other  3xx code, curl will re-send the following

              request using the same unmodified method.

 

       --libcurl <file>

              Append this option to any ordinary curl command  line,  and  you

              will  get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that

              does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

 

              If this option is used several times, the last given  file  name

              will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

 

       --limit-rate <speed>

              Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you want curl to use. This

              feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your

              transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

 

              The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is

              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number  as  kilo-

              bytes,  'm'  or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it

              gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

 

              The given rate is the average speed counted  during  the  entire

              transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in

              short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

              If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that  option  will

              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to

              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --local-port <num>[-num]

              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for

              the  connection(s).   Note  that  port  numbers  by nature are a

              scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range

              to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup

              failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

 

       --location-trusted

              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but  will  allow  sending  the

              name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This

              may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects

              you  to  a  site  to  which you'll send your authentication info

              (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

 

       -m, --max-time <seconds>

              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole  operation  to

              take.   This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang-

              ing for hours due to slow networks or links going  down.   Since

              7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-

              out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases

              in decimal precision.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --mail-auth <address>

              (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify

              the authentication address (identity)  of  a  submitted  message

              that is being relayed to another server.

 

              (Added in 7.25.0)

 

       --mail-from <address>

              (SMTP)  Specify  a single address that the given mail should get

              sent from.

 

              (Added in 7.20.0)

 

       --max-filesize <bytes>

              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to  download.  If

              the  file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will

              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

 

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to  download,  and

              for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-

              fer ends up being larger than this given  limit.  This  concerns

              both FTP and HTTP transfers.

 

       --mail-rcpt <address>

              (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.

              When  performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify a

              valid email address to send the mail to. (Added in 7.20.0)

 

              When performing an  address  verification  (VRFY  command),  the

              recipient  should be specified as the user name or user name and

              domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

 

              When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recip-

              ient  should  be  specified using the mailing list name, such as

              "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

 

       --max-redirs <num>

              Set maximum number of  redirection-followings  allowed.  If  -L,

              --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from

              following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the  limit  is

              set  to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limit-

              less.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --metalink

              This option can tell curl to parse and process a  given  URI  as

              Metalink  file  (both  version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported)

              and make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if  there

              are  errors (such as the file or server not being available). It

              will also verify the hash of the file after  the  download  com-

              pletes.  The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in

              memory and not stored in the local file system.

 

              Example to use a remote Metalink file:

 

              curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

 

              To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE proto-

              col (file://):

 

              curl --metalink file://example.metalink

 

              Please  note  that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way

              to use a local Metalink file at the time of this  writing.  Also

              note  that  if  --metalink  and  --include  are  used  together,

              --include will be ignored. This is because including headers  in

              the  response  will break Metalink parser and if the headers are

              included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will

              fail.

 

              (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

 

       -n, --netrc

              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc  (_netrc  on Windows) file in the

              user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-

              cally  used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable

              user authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details  on  the

              file  format.  Curl  will not complain if that file doesn't have

              the right permissions (it should not be either world- or  group-

              readable).  The  environment variable "HOME" is used to find the

              home directory.

 

              A quick and very simple example of how  to  setup  a  .netrc  to

              allow  curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name

              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

 

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

 

       -N, --no-buffer

              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-

              uations,  curl  will  use a standard buffered output stream that

              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not

              necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this option

              will disable that buffering.

 

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can

              thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

 

       --netrc-file

              This  option  is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the

              path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that  Curl  should

              use.   You  can  only  specify one netrc file per invocation. If

              several --netrc-file options are provided,  only  the  last  one

              will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

 

              This  option  overrides  any use of --netrc as they are mutually

              exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

 

       --netrc-optional

              Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc  usage

              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.

 

       --negotiate

              (HTTP)  Enables  GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate

              method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web appli-

              cations.  It  is  primarily  meant  as  a  support for Kerberos5

              authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-

              cation method. For more information see IETF draft draft-brezak-

              spnego-http-04.txt.

 

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your  proxy  authentication,

              then use --proxy-negotiate.

 

              This  option  requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This

              is not very common. Use -V, --version to  see  if  your  version

              supports GSS-Negotiate.

 

              When  using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user

              option to activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a

              '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the  user name and password from the -u

              option aren't actually used.

 

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is

              used.

 

       --no-keepalive

              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as

              by default curl enables them.

 

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can

              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

 

       --no-sessionid

              (SSL)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default

              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing

              should  ever  get  hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,

              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may

              require  you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added

              in 7.16.0)

 

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can

              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

 

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>

              Comma-separated  list  of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one

              is specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character,  which

              matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name

              in this list is matched as either a domain  which  contains  the

              hostname,  or  the hostname itself. For example, local.com would

              match  local.com,  local.com:80,  and  www.local.com,  but   not

              www.notlocal.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

 

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication

              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.

              It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo-

              ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of

              behavior  should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone

              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-

              tion method instead, such as Digest.

 

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then

              use --proxy-ntlm.

 

              This option requires a library built with SSL support.  Use  -V,

              --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

 

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is

              used.

 

       -o, --output <file>

              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or

              []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a

              number in the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced

              with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

 

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

 

              or use several variables like:

 

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

 

              You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you

              have.

 

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-

              ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)

              will force the output to be done to stdout.

 

       -O, --remote-name

              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we  get.

              (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut

              off.)

 

              The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the

              given URL, nothing else.

 

              Consequentially,  the  file will be saved in the current working

              directory. If you want the file saved in a different  directory,

              make sure you change current working directory before you invoke

              curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

 

              There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or

              other  URL  encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as

              file name.

 

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you

              have.

 

       --oauth2-bearer

              (IMAP, POP3, SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server

              authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the

              user  name  which  can  be specified as part of the --url or -u,

              --user options.

 

              The Bearer Token and user name are formatted  according  to  RFC

              6750.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -p, --proxytunnel

              When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause

              non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the  proxy

              instead  of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tun-

              nel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and

              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port

              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

 

       -P, --ftp-port <address>

              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-

              necting  with  FTP.  This  switch makes curl use active mode. In

              practice, curl then tells the server  to  connect  back  to  the

              client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the

              server to setup an IP address and port for  it  to  connect  to.

              <address> should be one of:

 

              interface

                     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface's IP address you

                     want to use (Unix only)

 

              IP address

                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

 

              host name

                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

 

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is  already  used

                     for the control connection

 

       If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used. Dis-

       able the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the

       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really

       PORT++.

 

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the

       address,  to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you spec-

       ify a port range, from a lower to a  higher  number.  A  single  number

       works  as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since

       the port may not be available.

 

       --pass <phrase>

              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --post301

              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert

              POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 301 redirect-

              ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous  in  web  browsers,  so

              curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.

              However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such

              a  redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,

              --location (Added in 7.17.1)

 

       --post302

              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert

              POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 302 redirect-

              ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous  in  web  browsers,  so

              curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.

              However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such

              a  redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,

              --location (Added in 7.19.1)

 

       --post303

              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert

              POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 303 redirect-

              ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous  in  web  browsers,  so

              curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.

              However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such

              a  redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,

              --location (Added in 7.26.0)

 

       --proto <protocols>

              Tells  curl  to  use  the  listed  protocols  for  its   initial

              retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma sep-

              arated, and are each a protocol name or 'all',  optionally  pre-

              fixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

 

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-

                 ted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

 

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list  of  protocols

                 already permitted.

 

              =  Permit  only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-

                 ted), though subject  to  later  modification  by  subsequent

                 entries in the comma separated list.

 

              For example:

 

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

 

              --proto -all,https,+http

                             only enables http and https

 

              --proto =http,https

                             also only enables http and https

 

              Unknown  protocols  produce  a  warning.  This allows scripts to

              safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous  pro-

              tocols,  without  relying  upon  support for that protocol being

              built into curl to avoid an error.

 

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect

              is  the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of

              the option.

 

              (Added in 7.20.2)

 

       --proto-redir <protocols>

              Tells curl to use the listed protocols  after  a  redirect.  See

              --proto for how protocols are represented.

 

              (Added in 7.20.2)

 

       --proxy-anyauth

              Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when commu-

              nicating with  the  given  proxy.  This  might  cause  an  extra

              request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

 

       --proxy-basic

              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating

              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a

              remote  host.  Basic  is  the default authentication method curl

              uses with proxies.

 

       --proxy-digest

              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when  communicating

              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with

              a remote host.

 

       --proxy-negotiate

              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicat-

              ing  with  the  given  proxy.  Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP

              Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

 

       --proxy-ntlm

              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM  authentication  when  communicating

              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote

              host.

 

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>

              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If  the  port  number  is  not

              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

 

              The  only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x,

              --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will

              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

 

       --pubkey <key>

              (SSH)  Public  key  file name. Allows you to provide your public

              key in this separate file.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the  curlrc

              config  file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for

              details on the default config file search path.

 

       -Q, --quote <command>

              (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP

              server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place

              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP  transfer,  to  be

              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,

              prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent  after

              curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer

              command(s), prefix the command with a '+'  (this  is  only  sup-

              ported  for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the

              server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire oper-

              ation  will  be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP

              commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of  the  com-

              mands  listed  below  to  SFTP servers.  This option can be used

              multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the  com-

              mand with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the com-

              mand fails as by default curl will stop at first failure.

 

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP

              quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File

              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-

              acters.   Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-

              mands:

 

              chgrp group file

                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named  by

                     the  file  operand to the group ID specified by the group

                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

 

              chmod mode file

                     The chmod command modifies the  file  mode  bits  of  the

                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode

                     number.

 

              chown user file

                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the

                     file  operand  to the user ID specified by the user oper-

                     and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

 

              ln source_file target_file

                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the

                     target_file  location  pointing  to the source_file loca-

                     tion.

 

              mkdir directory_name

                     The mkdir command creates  the  directory  named  by  the

                     directory_name operand.

 

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-

                     rent working directory.

 

              rename source target

                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by

                     the  source  operand to the destination path named by the

                     target operand.

 

              rm file

                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file op-

                     erand.

 

              rmdir directory

                     The  rmdir  command removes the directory entry specified

                     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

 

              symlink source_file target_file

                     See ln.

 

       -r, --range <range>

              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial  docu-

              ment)  from  a  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or  SFTP server or a local FILE.

              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

 

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

 

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

 

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

 

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

 

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

 

              500-700,600-799

                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

 

              100-199,500-599

                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

 

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply  with  a  multipart

       response!

 

       Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields

       of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given  in

       the  range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the

       server's configuration.

 

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do  not  have  this

       feature  enabled,  so  that  when  you  attempt  to get a range, you'll

       instead get the whole document.

 

       FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop'  syn-

       tax  (optionally  with  one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on

       the extended FTP command SIZE.

 

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -R, --remote-time

              When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out  the  time-

              stamp  of  the  remote  file,  and if that is available make the

              local file get that same timestamp.

 

       --random-file <file>

              (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be con-

              sidered  as  random  data.  The  data is used to seed the random

              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

 

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con-

              tent  or  transfer  encodings  and  instead makes them passed on

              unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

 

       --remote-name-all

              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to  be

              dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if

              you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-

              all  has  been  used,  you  must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

              (Added in 7.19.0)

 

       --resolve <host:port:address>

              Provide a custom address for a  specific  host  and  port  pair.

              Using  this,  you  can make the curl requests(s) use a specified

              address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved  address  to

              be  used.  Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided

              on the command line. The port number should be the  number  used

              for  the  specific  protocol the host will be used for. It means

              you need several entries if you want to provide address for  the

              same host but different ports.

 

              This  option  can  be  used many times to add many host names to

              resolve.

 

              (Added in 7.21.3)

 

       --retry <num>

              If a transient error is returned when curl tries  to  perform  a

              transfer,  it  will retry this number of times before giving up.

              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which  is  the

              default).  Transient  error  means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx

              response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

 

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one

              second  and  then for all forthcoming retries it will double the

              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the

              delay  between  the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay

              you  disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See   also

              --retry-max-time  to  limit  the total time allowed for retries.

              (Added in 7.12.3)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --retry-delay <seconds>

              Make curl sleep this amount of time before  each  retry  when  a

              transfer  has  failed  with  a  transient  error (it changes the

              default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option  is

              only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to

              zero will make curl use the default  backoff  time.   (Added  in

              7.12.3)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --retry-max-time <seconds>

              The  retry  timer  is  reset  before the first transfer attempt.

              Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer

              hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't

              reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-

              ing,  it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a

              single request's maximum time, use  -m,  --max-time.   Set  this

              option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -s, --silent

              Silent  or  quiet  mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-

              sages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data  you  ask

              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect

              it.

 

       --sasl-ir

              Enable initial  response  in  SASL  authentication.   (Added  in

              7.31.0)

 

       -S, --show-error

              When  used  with  -s  it  makes curl show an error message if it

              fails.

 

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for  the  connection.

              Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support

              SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-

              ent levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

 

              This  option  was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).

              That option name can still be used but  will  be  removed  in  a

              future version.

 

       --ssl-reqd

              (FTP,  POP3,  IMAP,  SMTP)  Require  SSL/TLS for the connection.

              Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

 

              This  option  was  formerly  known  as  --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in

              7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be  removed

              in a future version.

 

       --ssl-allow-beast

              (SSL)  This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw

              in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option

              isn't  used,  the  SSL layer may use work-arounds known to cause

              interoperability problems with some older  SSL  implementations.

              WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this

              flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

 

       --socks4 <host[:port]>

              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-

              fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

 

              This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they

              are mutually exclusive.

 

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a

              socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --socks4a <host[:port]>

              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec-

              ified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

 

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they

              are mutually exclusive.

 

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a

              socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol  pre-

              fix.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>

              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the

              host name). If the port number is not specified, it  is  assumed

              at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

 

              This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they

              are mutually exclusive.

 

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a

              socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto-

              col prefix.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as

              --socks without the number appended.)

 

       --socks5 <host[:port]>

              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -  but  resolve  the  host  name

              locally.  If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at

              port 1080.

 

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they

              are mutually exclusive.

 

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a

              socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as

              --socks without the number appended.)

 

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6,  FTPS

              or LDAP.

 

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>

              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.

              This option allows you to change it.

 

              Examples:  --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service   sockd

              would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-

              service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for  cases

              where  the proxy-name does not match the principal name.  (Added

              in 7.19.4).

 

       --socks5-gssapi-nec

              As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode  is  negoti-

              ated.  RFC  1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected,

              but the NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.   The  option

              --socks5-gssapi-nec  allows the unprotected exchange of the pro-

              tection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

 

       --stderr <file>

              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead.  If

              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>

              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

 

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

 

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

 

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

 

       -T, --upload-file <file>

              This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If

              there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the

              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last

              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or

              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file

              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to

              fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will

              be used.

 

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a

              given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a single period)

              may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking

              mode  to  allow  reading  server  output  while  stdin  is being

              uploaded.

 

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T

              + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup-

              ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload

              multiple  files  to  a single URL by using the same URL globbing

              style supported in the URL, like this:

 

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

 

              or even

 

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

 

       --tcp-nodelay

              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man

              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

 

       --tftp-blksize <value>

              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block

              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from

              a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

              (Added in 7.20.0)

 

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>

              Set  TLS  authentication  type.  Currently,  the  only supported

              option is "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If  --tlsuser  and

              --tlspassword  are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this

              option defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

 

       --tlspassword <password>

              Set password for use with the TLS authentication  method  speci-

              fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires that --tlsuser also be set.

              (Added in 7.21.4)

 

       --tlsuser <user>

              Set username for use with the TLS authentication  method  speci-

              fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also be

              set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

 

       --tlsv1.0

              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a

              remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

 

       --tlsv1.1

              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a

              remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

 

       --tlsv1.2

              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a

              remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

 

       --tr-encoding

              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one

              of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the  data  while

              receiving it.

 

              (Added in 7.21.6)

 

       --trace <file>

              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,

              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use

              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

 

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-

              ascii.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --trace-ascii <file>

              Enables a full trace dump of all  incoming  and  outgoing  data,

              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use

              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

 

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and

              only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output

              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

 

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --trace-time

              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl

              displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

 

       -u, --user <user:password;options>

              Specify  the  user  name, password and optional login options to

              use  for  server  authentication.  Overrides  -n,  --netrc   and

              --netrc-optional.

 

              If  you  simply specify the user name, with or without the login

              options, curl will prompt for a password.

 

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform NTLM  authen-

              tication,  you  can force curl to select the user name and pass-

              word from your environment by simply specifying a  single  colon

              with  this  option:  "-u :" or by specfying the login options on

              their own, for example "-u ;auth=NTLM".

 

              You can use the optional login options part to specify  protocol

              specific  options  that  may  be  used during authentication. At

              present only IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login options  as  part

              of  the  user  login information. For more information about the

              login options please see RFC  2384,  RFC  5092  and  IETF  draft

              draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt (Added in 7.31.0).

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>

              Specify  the user name and password to use for proxy authentica-

              tion.

 

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do  NTLM  authentica-

              tion,  you  can force curl to pick up the user name and password

              from your environment by simply specifying a single  colon  with

              this option: "-U :".

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --url <URL>

              Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly handy when you

              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

 

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  control  where

              this  URL  is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-

              name options.

       -v, --verbose

              Makes the fetching more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly  useful  for

              debugging.  A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by

              curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in

              normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info

              provided by curl.

 

              Note that if you only want  HTTP  headers  in  the  output,  -i,

              --include might be the option you're looking for.

 

              If  you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,

              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

 

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

 

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

 

       -w, --write-out <format>

              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and success-

              ful  operation.  The  format  is a string that may contain plain

              text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be spec-

              ified  as "string", to get read from a particular file you spec-

              ify it "@filename" and to tell curl  to  read  the  format  from

              stdin you write "@-".

 

              The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted

              by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described  below.

              All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a

              normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline  by

              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

 

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,

              where all occurrences of %  must  be  doubled  when  using  this

              option.

 

              The variables available are:

 

              content_type   The  Content-Type  of  the requested document, if

                             there was any.

 

              filename_effective

                             The ultimate filename that curl  writes  out  to.

                             This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write

                             to a file  with  the  --remote-name  or  --output

                             option.  It's most useful in combination with the

                             --remote-header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

 

              ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on

                             to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

 

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the

                             last retrieved HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer.  In

                             7.18.2  the alias response_code was added to show

                             the same info.

 

              http_connect   The numerical code that was  found  in  the  last

                             response   (from  a  proxy)  to  a  curl  CONNECT

                             request. (Added in 7.12.4)

 

              local_ip       The IP address of  the  local  end  of  the  most

                             recently  done connection - can be either IPv4 or

                             IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

 

              local_port     The local port number of the most  recently  done

                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

 

              num_connects   Number  of new connects made in the recent trans-

                             fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

 

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that  were  followed  in  the

                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

 

              redirect_url   When  an HTTP request was made without -L to fol-

                             low redirects, this variable will show the actual

                             URL  a  redirect  would  take  you  to. (Added in

                             7.18.2)

 

              remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most  recently  done

                             connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in

                             7.29.0)

 

              remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently  done

                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

 

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

 

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-

                             ers.

 

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the

                             HTTP request.

 

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

 

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for

                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

 

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for

                             the complete upload. Bytes per second.

 

              ssl_verify_result

                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-

                             tion that was requested. 0 means the verification

                             was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

 

              time_appconnect

                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start

                             until the SSL/SSH/etc  connect/handshake  to  the

                             remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

 

              time_connect   The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start

                             until the TCP connect  to  the  remote  host  (or

                             proxy) was completed.

 

              time_namelookup

                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start

                             until the name resolving was completed.

 

              time_pretransfer

                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start

                             until  the file transfer was just about to begin.

                             This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-

                             tiations that are specific to the particular pro-

                             tocol(s) involved.

 

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection

                             steps  include  name lookup, connect, pretransfer

                             and transfer before  the  final  transaction  was

                             started.  time_redirect shows the complete execu-

                             tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in

                             7.12.3)

 

              time_starttransfer

                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start

                             until the first byte was just about to be  trans-

                             ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also

                             the time  the  server  needed  to  calculate  the

                             result.

 

              time_total     The  total time, in seconds, that the full opera-

                             tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil-

                             lisecond resolution.

 

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-

                             ingful if you've told curl  to  follow  location:

                             headers.

 

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>

              Use the specified proxy.

 

              The  proxy  string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to

              specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://,  socks4a://,

              socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to

              be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others  will  be

              treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl

              7.21.7)

 

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,  it  is

              assumed to be 1080.

 

              This  option  overrides  existing environment variables that set

              the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable  setting  a

              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

 

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans-

              parently be converted to HTTP. It means  that  certain  protocol

              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case

              if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-

              ytunnel option.

 

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are

              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special  charac-

              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

 

              The  proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy

              environment variables, including the protocol  prefix  (http://)

              and the embedded user + password.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -X, --request <command>

              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-

              ing with the HTTP server.  The specified request  will  be  used

              instead  of  the  method otherwise used (which defaults to GET).

              Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for  details  and  explanations.

              Common  additional  HTTP  requests  include  PUT and DELETE, but

              related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and

              more.

 

              Normally  you  don't  need  this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,

              POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com-

              mand line options.

 

              This  option  only  changes  the  actual  word  used in the HTTP

              request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for  example

              if  you  want  to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will

              not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

 

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when

              doing file lists with FTP.

 

              (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or

              RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

 

              (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use  insead  of  LIST.

              (Added in 7.30.0)

 

              (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or

              VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       --xattr

              When saving output to a file, this option tells  curl  to  store

              certain  file  metadata  in extended file attributes. Currently,

              the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP,

              the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the

              file system does not support extended attributes, a  warning  is

              issued.

 

       -y, --speed-time <time>

              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during

              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is

              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

 

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow

              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-

              timeout option.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>

              If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec-

              ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set

              with -y and is 30 if not set.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -z, --time-cond <date expression>|<file>

              (HTTP/FTP)  Request a file that has been modified later than the

              given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that

              time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or

              if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename

              and  tries  to  get  the  modification  date (mtime) from <file>

              instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression

              details.

 

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for

              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a

              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

 

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

 

       -h, --help

              Usage help.

 

       -M, --manual

              Manual. Display the huge help text.

 

       -V, --version

              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The  first  line  includes the full version of curl, libcurl and

              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

 

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows  all  protocols

              that libcurl reports to support.

 

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features

              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

 

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

 

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

 

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

 

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is

                     supported.

 

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

 

              GSS-Negotiate

                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

 

              Debug  This  curl  uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables

                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For  curl-

                     developers only!

 

              AsynchDNS

                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

 

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

 

              Largefile

                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger

                     than 2GB.

 

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

 

              SSPI   SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM and set a  blank  user

                     name,  curl  will authenticate with your current user and

                     password.

 

              TLS-SRP

                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is  supported

                     for TLS.

              Metalink

                     This  curl  supports  Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC

                     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will

                     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the

                     file or server not being available).

 

FILES

       ~/.curlrc

              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

 

ENVIRONMENT

       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.

       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it

       is only available in lower case.

 

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same  effect  as

       using the --proxy option.

 

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]

              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]

              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

 

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]

              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the pro-

              tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified  in  a

              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

 

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]

              Sets  the  proxy  server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is

              set.

 

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>

              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set

              to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

 

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES

       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a

       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

 

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the  string

       doesn't  match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP

       proxy.

 

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

 

       socks4://

              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

 

       socks4a://

              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

 

       socks5://

              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

 

       socks5h://

              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

 

EXIT CODES

       There are a bunch of different  error  codes  and  their  corresponding

       error  messages  that  may appear during bad conditions. At the time of

       this writing, the exit codes are:

 

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this

              protocol.

 

       2      Failed to initialize.

 

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

 

       4      A  feature  or  option  that  was  needed to perform the desired

              request was not enabled or was  explicitly  disabled  at  build-

              time.  To  make  curl able to do this, you probably need another

              build of libcurl!

 

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy.  The  given  proxy  host  could  not  be

              resolved.

 

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

 

       7      Failed to connect to host.

 

       8      FTP  weird  server  reply.  The  server  sent data curl couldn't

              parse.

 

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to

              the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most

              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't  exist  on

              the server.

 

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the

              PASS request.

 

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the

              PASV request.

 

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.  Curl  couldn't  parse the 227-line the

              server sent.

 

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got  in  the

              227-line.

 

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to

              binary.

 

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

 

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or  simi-

              lar) command failed.

 

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The  requested url was not found or

              returned another error with the HTTP error  code  being  400  or

              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

 

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or

              similar.

 

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied  the  STOR  operation,

              used for FTP uploading.

 

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

 

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

 

       28     Operation  timeout.  The  specified  time-out period was reached

              according to the conditions.

 

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not  all  FTP  servers

              support  the  PORT  command,  try  doing  a  transfer using PASV

              instead!

 

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command  is

              used for resumed FTP transfers.

 

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

 

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

 

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

 

       36     FTP  bad  download  resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted

              download.

 

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

 

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

 

       39     LDAP search failed.

 

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

 

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-

              ation.

 

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

 

       45     Interface  error.  A  specified  outgoing interface could not be

              used.

 

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-

              mum amount.

 

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you

              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and

              rejected. Read up in the manual!

 

       49     Malformed telnet option.

 

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

 

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an

              error.

 

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

 

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

 

       55     Failed sending network data.

 

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

 

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

 

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

 

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-

              cates.

 

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

 

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

 

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

 

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

 

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

 

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

 

       67     The  user  name,  password, or similar was not accepted and curl

              failed to log in.

 

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

 

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

 

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

 

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

 

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

 

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

 

       74     No such user (TFTP).

 

       75     Character conversion failed.

 

       76     Character conversion functions required.

 

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

 

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

 

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

 

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

 

       82     Could not load CRL file,  missing  or  wrong  format  (added  in

              7.19.0).

 

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

 

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

 

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

 

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

 

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

 

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

 

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued

 

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-

              ing ones are meant to never change.

 

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors

       is found in the separate THANKS file.

 

WWW

       http://curl.haxx.se

 

FTP

       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

 

SEE ALSO

       ftp(1), wget(1)

 

LATEST VERSION

 

  You always find news about what's going on as well as the latest versions

  from the curl web pages, located at:

 

        http://curl.haxx.se

 

SIMPLE USAGE

 

  Get the main page from Netscape's web-server:

 

        curl http://www.netscape.com/

 

  Get the README file the user's home directory at funet's ftp-server:

 

        curl ftp://ftp.funet.fi/README

 

  Get a web page from a server using port 8000:

 

        curl http://www.weirdserver.com:8000/

 

  Get a directory listing of an FTP site:

 

        curl ftp://cool.haxx.se/

 

  Get the definition of curl from a dictionary:

 

        curl dict://dict.org/m:curl

 

  Fetch two documents at once:

 

        curl ftp://cool.haxx.se/ http://www.weirdserver.com:8000/

 

  Get a file off an FTPS server:

 

        curl ftps://files.are.secure.com/secrets.txt

 

  or use the more appropriate FTPS way to get the same file:

 

        curl --ftp-ssl ftp://files.are.secure.com/secrets.txt

 

  Get a file from an SSH server using SFTP:

 

        curl -u username sftp://shell.example.com/etc/issue

 

  Get a file from an SSH server using SCP using a private key to authenticate:

 

        curl -u username: --key ~/.ssh/id_dsa --pubkey ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub \

            scp://shell.example.com/~/personal.txt

 

  Get the main page from an IPv6 web server:

 

        curl -g "http://[2001:1890:1112:1::20]/"

 

DOWNLOAD TO A FILE

 

  Get a web page and store in a local file with a specific name:

 

        curl -o thatpage.html http://www.netscape.com/

 

  Get a web page and store in a local file, make the local file get the name

  of the remote document (if no file name part is specified in the URL, this

  will fail):

 

        curl -O http://www.netscape.com/index.html

 

  Fetch two files and store them with their remote names:

 

        curl -O www.haxx.se/index.html -O curl.haxx.se/download.html

 

USING PASSWORDS

 

 FTP

 

   To ftp files using name+passwd, include them in the URL like:

 

        curl ftp://name:Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.:port/full/path/to/file

 

   or specify them with the -u flag like

 

        curl -u name:passwd ftp://machine.domain:port/full/path/to/file

 

 FTPS

 

   It is just like for FTP, but you may also want to specify and use

   SSL-specific options for certificates etc.

 

   Note that using FTPS:// as prefix is the "implicit" way as described in the

   standards while the recommended "explicit" way is done by using FTP:// and

   the --ftp-ssl option.

 

 SFTP / SCP

 

   This is similar to FTP, but you can specify a private key to use instead of

   a password. Note that the private key may itself be protected by a password

   that is unrelated to the login password of the remote system.  If you

   provide a private key file you must also provide a public key file.

 

 HTTP

 

   Curl also supports user and password in HTTP URLs, thus you can pick a file

   like:

 

        curl http://name:Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра./full/path/to/file

 

   or specify user and password separately like in

 

        curl -u name:passwd http://machine.domain/full/path/to/file

 

   HTTP offers many different methods of authentication and curl supports

   several: Basic, Digest, NTLM and Negotiate. Without telling which method to

   use, curl defaults to Basic. You can also ask curl to pick the most secure

   ones out of the ones that the server accepts for the given URL, by using

   --anyauth.

 

   NOTE! According to the URL specification, HTTP URLs can not contain a user

   and password, so that style will not work when using curl via a proxy, even

   though curl allows it at other times. When using a proxy, you _must_ use

   the -u style for user and password.

 

 HTTPS

 

   Probably most commonly used with private certificates, as explained below.

 

PROXY

 

 curl supports both HTTP and SOCKS proxy servers, with optional authentication.

 It does not have special support for FTP proxy servers since there are no

 standards for those, but it can still be made to work with many of them. You

 can also use both HTTP and SOCKS proxies to transfer files to and from FTP

 servers.

 

 Get an ftp file using an HTTP proxy named my-proxy that uses port 888:

 

        curl -x my-proxy:888 ftp://ftp.leachsite.com/README

 

 Get a file from an HTTP server that requires user and password, using the

 same proxy as above:

 

        curl -u user:passwd -x my-proxy:888 http://www.get.this/

 

 Some proxies require special authentication. Specify by using -U as above:

 

        curl -U user:passwd -x my-proxy:888 http://www.get.this/

 

 A comma-separated list of hosts and domains which do not use the proxy can

 be specified as:

 

        curl --noproxy localhost,get.this -x my-proxy:888 http://www.get.this/

 

 If the proxy is specified with --proxy1.0 instead of --proxy or -x, then

 curl will use HTTP/1.0 instead of HTTP/1.1 for any CONNECT attempts.

 

 curl also supports SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 proxies with --socks4 and --socks5.

 

 See also the environment variables Curl supports that offer further proxy

 control.

 

 Most FTP proxy servers are set up to appear as a normal FTP server from the

 client's perspective, with special commands to select the remote FTP server.

 curl supports the -u, -Q and --ftp-account options that can be used to

 set up transfers through many FTP proxies. For example, a file can be

 uploaded to a remote FTP server using a Blue Coat FTP proxy with the

 options:

 

   curl -u "Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. Proxy-Username:Remote-Pass" \

    --ftp-account Proxy-Password --upload-file local-file \

    ftp://my-ftp.proxy.server:21/remote/upload/path/

 

 See the manual for your FTP proxy to determine the form it expects to set up

 transfers, and curl's -v option to see exactly what curl is sending.

 

RANGES

 

  HTTP 1.1 introduced byte-ranges. Using this, a client can request

  to get only one or more subparts of a specified document. Curl supports

  this with the -r flag.

 

  Get the first 100 bytes of a document:

 

        curl -r 0-99 http://www.get.this/

 

  Get the last 500 bytes of a document:

 

        curl -r -500 http://www.get.this/

 

  Curl also supports simple ranges for FTP files as well. Then you can only

  specify start and stop position.

 

  Get the first 100 bytes of a document using FTP:

 

        curl -r 0-99 ftp://www.get.this/README

 

UPLOADING

 

 FTP / FTPS / SFTP / SCP

 

  Upload all data on stdin to a specified server:

 

        curl -T - ftp://ftp.upload.com/myfile

 

  Upload data from a specified file, login with user and password:

 

        curl -T uploadfile -u user:passwd ftp://ftp.upload.com/myfile

 

  Upload a local file to the remote site, and use the local file name at the remote

  site too:

 

        curl -T uploadfile -u user:passwd ftp://ftp.upload.com/

 

  Upload a local file to get appended to the remote file:

 

        curl -T localfile -a ftp://ftp.upload.com/remotefile

 

  Curl also supports ftp upload through a proxy, but only if the proxy is

  configured to allow that kind of tunneling. If it does, you can run curl in

  a fashion similar to:

 

        curl --proxytunnel -x proxy:port -T localfile ftp.upload.com

 

 HTTP

 

  Upload all data on stdin to a specified HTTP site:

 

        curl -T - http://www.upload.com/myfile

 

  Note that the HTTP server must have been configured to accept PUT before

  this can be done successfully.

 

  For other ways to do HTTP data upload, see the POST section below.

 

VERBOSE / DEBUG

 

  If curl fails where it isn't supposed to, if the servers don't let you in,

  if you can't understand the responses: use the -v flag to get verbose

  fetching. Curl will output lots of info and what it sends and receives in

  order to let the user see all client-server interaction (but it won't show

  you the actual data).

 

        curl -v ftp://ftp.upload.com/

 

  To get even more details and information on what curl does, try using the

  --trace or --trace-ascii options with a given file name to log to, like

  this:

 

        curl --trace trace.txt www.haxx.se

 

 

DETAILED INFORMATION

 

  Different protocols provide different ways of getting detailed information

  about specific files/documents. To get curl to show detailed information

  about a single file, you should use -I/--head option. It displays all

  available info on a single file for HTTP and FTP. The HTTP information is a

  lot more extensive.

 

  For HTTP, you can get the header information (the same as -I would show)

  shown before the data by using -i/--include. Curl understands the

  -D/--dump-header option when getting files from both FTP and HTTP, and it

  will then store the headers in the specified file.

 

  Store the HTTP headers in a separate file (headers.txt in the example):

 

        curl --dump-header headers.txt curl.haxx.se

 

  Note that headers stored in a separate file can be very useful at a later

  time if you want curl to use cookies sent by the server. More about that in

  the cookies section.

 

POST (HTTP)

 

  It's easy to post data using curl. This is done using the -d <data>

  option.  The post data must be urlencoded.

 

  Post a simple "name" and "phone" guestbook.

 

        curl -d "name=Rafael%20Sagula&phone=3320780" \

                http://www.where.com/guest.cgi

 

  How to post a form with curl, lesson #1:

 

  Dig out all the <input> tags in the form that you want to fill in. (There's

  a perl program called formfind.pl on the curl site that helps with this).

 

  If there's a "normal" post, you use -d to post. -d takes a full "post

  string", which is in the format

 

        <variable1>=<data1>&<variable2>=<data2>&...

 

  The 'variable' names are the names set with "name=" in the <input> tags, and

  the data is the contents you want to fill in for the inputs. The data *must*

  be properly URL encoded. That means you replace space with + and that you

  replace weird letters with %XX where XX is the hexadecimal representation of

  the letter's ASCII code.

 

  Example:

 

  (page located at http://www.formpost.com/getthis/

 

        <form action="post.cgi" method="post">

        <input name=user size=10>

        <input name=pass type=password size=10>

        <input name=id type=hidden value="blablabla">

        <input name=ding value="submit">

        </form>

 

  We want to enter user 'foobar' with password '12345'.

 

  To post to this, you enter a curl command line like:

 

        curl -d "user=foobar&pass=12345&id=blablabla&ding=submit"  (continues)

          http://www.formpost.com/getthis/post.cgi

 

 

  While -d uses the application/x-www-form-urlencoded mime-type, generally

  understood by CGI's and similar, curl also supports the more capable

  multipart/form-data type. This latter type supports things like file upload.

 

  -F accepts parameters like -F "name=contents". If you want the contents to

  be read from a file, use <@filename> as contents. When specifying a file,

  you can also specify the file content type by appending ';type=<mime type>'

  to the file name. You can also post the contents of several files in one

  field.  For example, the field name 'coolfiles' is used to send three files,

  with different content types using the following syntax:

 

        curl -F "coolfiles=@fil1.gif;type=image/gif,fil2.txt,fil3.html" \

        http://www.post.com/postit.cgi

 

  If the content-type is not specified, curl will try to guess from the file

  extension (it only knows a few), or use the previously specified type (from

  an earlier file if several files are specified in a list) or else it will

  use the default type 'application/octet-stream'.

 

  Emulate a fill-in form with -F. Let's say you fill in three fields in a

  form. One field is a file name which to post, one field is your name and one

  field is a file description. We want to post the file we have written named

  "cooltext.txt". To let curl do the posting of this data instead of your

  favourite browser, you have to read the HTML source of the form page and

  find the names of the input fields. In our example, the input field names

  are 'file', 'yourname' and 'filedescription'.

 

        curl -F "file=@cooltext.txt" -F "yourname=Daniel" \

             -F "filedescription=Cool text file with cool text inside" \

             http://www.post.com/postit.cgi

 

  To send two files in one post you can do it in two ways:

 

  1. Send multiple files in a single "field" with a single field name:

 

        curl -F "pictures=@dog.gif,cat.gif"

 

  2. Send two fields with two field names:

 

        curl -F "docpicture=@dog.gif" -F "catpicture=@cat.gif"

 

  To send a field value literally without interpreting a leading '@'

  or '<', or an embedded ';type=', use --form-string instead of

  -F. This is recommended when the value is obtained from a user or

  some other unpredictable source. Under these circumstances, using

  -F instead of --form-string would allow a user to trick curl into

  uploading a file.

 

REFERRER

 

  An HTTP request has the option to include information about which address

  referred it to the actual page.  Curl allows you to specify the

  referrer to be used on the command line. It is especially useful to

  fool or trick stupid servers or CGI scripts that rely on that information

  being available or contain certain data.

 

        curl -e www.coolsite.com http://www.showme.com/

 

  NOTE: The Referer: [sic] field is defined in the HTTP spec to be a full URL.

 

USER AGENT

 

  An HTTP request has the option to include information about the browser

  that generated the request. Curl allows it to be specified on the command

  line. It is especially useful to fool or trick stupid servers or CGI

  scripts that only accept certain browsers.

 

  Example:

 

  curl -A 'Mozilla/3.0 (Win95; I)' http://www.nationsbank.com/

 

  Other common strings:

    'Mozilla/3.0 (Win95; I)'     Netscape Version 3 for Windows 95

    'Mozilla/3.04 (Win95; U)'    Netscape Version 3 for Windows 95

    'Mozilla/2.02 (OS/2; U)'     Netscape Version 2 for OS/2

    'Mozilla/4.04 [en] (X11; U; AIX 4.2; Nav)'           NS for AIX

    'Mozilla/4.05 [en] (X11; U; Linux 2.0.32 i586)'      NS for Linux

 

  Note that Internet Explorer tries hard to be compatible in every way:

    'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 4.01; Windows 95)'    MSIE for W95

 

  Mozilla is not the only possible User-Agent name:

    'Konqueror/1.0'             KDE File Manager desktop client

    'Lynx/2.7.1 libwww-FM/2.14' Lynx command line browser

 

COOKIES

 

  Cookies are generally used by web servers to keep state information at the

  client's side. The server sets cookies by sending a response line in the

  headers that looks like 'Set-Cookie: <data>' where the data part then

  typically contains a set of NAME=VALUE pairs (separated by semicolons ';'

  like "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2;"). The server can also specify for what

  path the "cookie" should be used for (by specifying "path=value"), when the

  cookie should expire ("expire=DATE"), for what domain to use it

  ("domain=NAME") and if it should be used on secure connections only

  ("secure").

 

  If you've received a page from a server that contains a header like:

        Set-Cookie: sessionid=boo123; path="/foo";

 

  it means the server wants that first pair passed on when we get anything in

  a path beginning with "/foo".

 

  Example, get a page that wants my name passed in a cookie:

 

        curl -b "name=Daniel" www.sillypage.com

 

  Curl also has the ability to use previously received cookies in following

  sessions. If you get cookies from a server and store them in a file in a

  manner similar to:

 

        curl --dump-header headers www.example.com

 

  ... you can then in a second connect to that (or another) site, use the

  cookies from the 'headers' file like:

 

        curl -b headers www.example.com

 

  While saving headers to a file is a working way to store cookies, it is

  however error-prone and not the preferred way to do this. Instead, make curl

  save the incoming cookies using the well-known netscape cookie format like

  this:

 

        curl -c cookies.txt www.example.com

 

  Note that by specifying -b you enable the "cookie awareness" and with -L

  you can make curl follow a location: (which often is used in combination

  with cookies). So that if a site sends cookies and a location, you can

  use a non-existing file to trigger the cookie awareness like:

 

        curl -L -b empty.txt www.example.com

 

  The file to read cookies from must be formatted using plain HTTP headers OR

  as netscape's cookie file. Curl will determine what kind it is based on the

  file contents.  In the above command, curl will parse the header and store

  the cookies received from www.example.com.  curl will send to the server the

  stored cookies which match the request as it follows the location.  The

  file "empty.txt" may be a nonexistent file.

 

  Alas, to both read and write cookies from a netscape cookie file, you can

  set both -b and -c to use the same file:

 

        curl -b cookies.txt -c cookies.txt www.example.com

 

PROGRESS METER

 

  The progress meter exists to show a user that something actually is

  happening. The different fields in the output have the following meaning:

 

  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed          Time             Curr.

                                 Dload  Upload Total    Current  Left    Speed

  0  151M    0 38608    0     0   9406      0  4:41:43  0:00:04  4:41:39  9287

 

  From left-to-right:

   %             - percentage completed of the whole transfer

   Total         - total size of the whole expected transfer

   %             - percentage completed of the download

   Received      - currently downloaded amount of bytes

   %             - percentage completed of the upload

   Xferd         - currently uploaded amount of bytes

   Average Speed

   Dload         - the average transfer speed of the download

   Average Speed

   Upload        - the average transfer speed of the upload

   Time Total    - expected time to complete the operation

   Time Current  - time passed since the invoke

   Time Left     - expected time left to completion

   Curr.Speed    - the average transfer speed the last 5 seconds (the first

                   5 seconds of a transfer is based on less time of course.)

 

  The -# option will display a totally different progress bar that doesn't

  need much explanation!

 

SPEED LIMIT

 

  Curl allows the user to set the transfer speed conditions that must be met

  to let the transfer keep going. By using the switch -y and -Y you

  can make curl abort transfers if the transfer speed is below the specified

  lowest limit for a specified time.

 

  To have curl abort the download if the speed is slower than 3000 bytes per

  second for 1 minute, run:

 

        curl -Y 3000 -y 60 www.far-away-site.com

 

  This can very well be used in combination with the overall time limit, so

  that the above operation must be completed in whole within 30 minutes:

 

        curl -m 1800 -Y 3000 -y 60 www.far-away-site.com

 

  Forcing curl not to transfer data faster than a given rate is also possible,

  which might be useful if you're using a limited bandwidth connection and you

  don't want your transfer to use all of it (sometimes referred to as

  "bandwidth throttle").

 

  Make curl transfer data no faster than 10 kilobytes per second:

 

        curl --limit-rate 10K www.far-away-site.com

 

    or

 

        curl --limit-rate 10240 www.far-away-site.com

 

  Or prevent curl from uploading data faster than 1 megabyte per second:

 

        curl -T upload --limit-rate 1M ftp://uploadshereplease.com

 

  When using the --limit-rate option, the transfer rate is regulated on a

  per-second basis, which will cause the total transfer speed to become lower

  than the given number. Sometimes of course substantially lower, if your

  transfer stalls during periods.

 

CONFIG FILE

 

  Curl automatically tries to read the .curlrc file (or _curlrc file on win32

  systems) from the user's home dir on startup.

 

  The config file could be made up with normal command line switches, but you

  can also specify the long options without the dashes to make it more

  readable. You can separate the options and the parameter with spaces, or

  with = or :. Comments can be used within the file. If the first letter on a

  line is a '#'-symbol the rest of the line is treated as a comment.

 

  If you want the parameter to contain spaces, you must enclose the entire

  parameter within double quotes ("). Within those quotes, you specify a

  quote as \".

 

  NOTE: You must specify options and their arguments on the same line.

 

  Example, set default time out and proxy in a config file:

 

        # We want a 30 minute timeout:

        -m 1800

        # ... and we use a proxy for all accesses:

        proxy = proxy.our.domain.com:8080

 

  White spaces ARE significant at the end of lines, but all white spaces

  leading up to the first characters of each line are ignored.

 

  Prevent curl from reading the default file by using -q as the first command

  line parameter, like:

 

        curl -q www.thatsite.com

 

  Force curl to get and display a local help page in case it is invoked

  without URL by making a config file similar to:

 

        # default url to get

        url = "http://help.with.curl.com/curlhelp.html"

 

  You can specify another config file to be read by using the -K/--config

  flag. If you set config file name to "-" it'll read the config from stdin,

  which can be handy if you want to hide options from being visible in process

  tables etc:

 

        echo "user = user:passwd" | curl -K - http://that.secret.site.com

 

EXTRA HEADERS

 

  When using curl in your own very special programs, you may end up needing

  to pass on your own custom headers when getting a web page. You can do

  this by using the -H flag.

 

  Example, send the header "X-you-and-me: yes" to the server when getting a

  page:

 

        curl -H "X-you-and-me: yes" www.love.com

 

  This can also be useful in case you want curl to send a different text in a

  header than it normally does. The -H header you specify then replaces the

  header curl would normally send. If you replace an internal header with an

  empty one, you prevent that header from being sent. To prevent the Host:

  header from being used:

 

        curl -H "Host:" www.server.com

 

FTP and PATH NAMES

 

  Do note that when getting files with the ftp:// URL, the given path is

  relative the directory you enter. To get the file 'README' from your home

  directory at your ftp site, do:

 

        curl ftp://user:Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра./README

 

  But if you want the README file from the root directory of that very same

  site, you need to specify the absolute file name:

 

        curl ftp://user:Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.//README

 

  (I.e with an extra slash in front of the file name.)

 

SFTP and SCP and PATH NAMES

 

  With sftp: and scp: URLs, the path name given is the absolute name on the

  server. To access a file relative to the remote user's home directory,

  prefix the file with /~/ , such as:

 

        curl -u $USER sftp://home.example.com/~/.bashrc

 

FTP and firewalls

 

  The FTP protocol requires one of the involved parties to open a second

  connection as soon as data is about to get transferred. There are two ways to

  do this.

 

  The default way for curl is to issue the PASV command which causes the

  server to open another port and await another connection performed by the

  client. This is good if the client is behind a firewall that doesn't allow

  incoming connections.

 

        curl ftp.download.com

 

  If the server, for example, is behind a firewall that doesn't allow connections

  on ports other than 21 (or if it just doesn't support the PASV command), the

  other way to do it is to use the PORT command and instruct the server to

  connect to the client on the given IP number and port (as parameters to the

  PORT command).

 

  The -P flag to curl supports a few different options. Your machine may have

  several IP-addresses and/or network interfaces and curl allows you to select

  which of them to use. Default address can also be used:

 

        curl -P - ftp.download.com

 

  Download with PORT but use the IP address of our 'le0' interface (this does

  not work on windows):

 

        curl -P le0 ftp.download.com

 

  Download with PORT but use 192.168.0.10 as our IP address to use:

 

        curl -P 192.168.0.10 ftp.download.com

 

NETWORK INTERFACE

 

  Get a web page from a server using a specified port for the interface:

 

        curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

 

  or

 

        curl --interface 192.168.1.10 http://www.netscape.com/

 

HTTPS

 

  Secure HTTP requires SSL libraries to be installed and used when curl is

  built. If that is done, curl is capable of retrieving and posting documents

  using the HTTPS protocol.

 

  Example:

 

        curl https://www.secure-site.com

 

  Curl is also capable of using your personal certificates to get/post files

  from sites that require valid certificates. The only drawback is that the

  certificate needs to be in PEM-format. PEM is a standard and open format to

  store certificates with, but it is not used by the most commonly used

  browsers (Netscape and MSIE both use the so called PKCS#12 format). If you

  want curl to use the certificates you use with your (favourite) browser, you

  may need to download/compile a converter that can convert your browser's

  formatted certificates to PEM formatted ones. This kind of converter is

  included in recent versions of OpenSSL, and for older versions Dr Stephen

  N. Henson has written a patch for SSLeay that adds this functionality. You

  can get his patch (that requires an SSLeay installation) from his site at:

  http://www.drh-consultancy.demon.co.uk/

 

  Example on how to automatically retrieve a document using a certificate with

  a personal password:

 

        curl -E /path/to/cert.pem:password https://secure.site.com/

 

  If you neglect to specify the password on the command line, you will be

  prompted for the correct password before any data can be received.

 

  Many older SSL-servers have problems with SSLv3 or TLS, which newer versions

  of OpenSSL etc use, therefore it is sometimes useful to specify what

  SSL-version curl should use. Use -3, -2 or -1 to specify that exact SSL

  version to use (for SSLv3, SSLv2 or TLSv1 respectively):

 

        curl -2 https://secure.site.com/

 

  Otherwise, curl will first attempt to use v3 and then v2.

 

  To use OpenSSL to convert your favourite browser's certificate into a PEM

  formatted one that curl can use, do something like this:

 

    In Netscape, you start with hitting the 'Security' menu button.

 

    Select 'certificates->yours' and then pick a certificate in the list

 

    Press the 'Export' button

 

    enter your PIN code for the certs

 

    select a proper place to save it

 

    Run the 'openssl' application to convert the certificate. If you cd to the

    openssl installation, you can do it like:

 

     # ./apps/openssl pkcs12 -in [file you saved] -clcerts -out [PEMfile]

 

    In Firefox, select Options, then Advanced, then the Encryption tab,

    View Certificates. This opens the Certificate Manager, where you can

    Export. Be sure to select PEM for the Save as type.

 

    In Internet Explorer, select Internet Options, then the Content tab, then

    Certificates. Then you can Export, and depending on the format you may

    need to convert to PEM.

 

    In Chrome, select Settings, then Show Advanced Settings. Under HTTPS/SSL

    select Manage Certificates.

 

RESUMING FILE TRANSFERS

 

 To continue a file transfer where it was previously aborted, curl supports

 resume on HTTP(S) downloads as well as FTP uploads and downloads.

 

 Continue downloading a document:

 

        curl -C - -o file ftp://ftp.server.com/path/file

 

 Continue uploading a document(*1):

 

        curl -C - -T file ftp://ftp.server.com/path/file

 

 Continue downloading a document from a web server(*2):

 

        curl -C - -o file http://www.server.com/

 

 (*1) = This requires that the FTP server supports the non-standard command

        SIZE. If it doesn't, curl will say so.

 

 (*2) = This requires that the web server supports at least HTTP/1.1. If it

        doesn't, curl will say so.

 

TIME CONDITIONS

 

 HTTP allows a client to specify a time condition for the document it

 requests. It is If-Modified-Since or If-Unmodified-Since. Curl allows you to

 specify them with the -z/--time-cond flag.

 

 For example, you can easily make a download that only gets performed if the

 remote file is newer than a local copy. It would be made like:

 

        curl -z local.html http://remote.server.com/remote.html

 

 Or you can download a file only if the local file is newer than the remote

 one. Do this by prepending the date string with a '-', as in:

 

        curl -z -local.html http://remote.server.com/remote.html

 

 You can specify a "free text" date as condition. Tell curl to only download

 the file if it was updated since January 12, 2012:

 

        curl -z "Jan 12 2012" http://remote.server.com/remote.html

 

 Curl will then accept a wide range of date formats. You always make the date

 check the other way around by prepending it with a dash '-'.

 

DICT

 

  For fun try

 

        curl dict://dict.org/m:curl

        curl dict://dict.org/d:heisenbug:jargon

        curl dict://dict.org/d:daniel:web1913

 

  Aliases for 'm' are 'match' and 'find', and aliases for 'd' are 'define'

  and 'lookup'. For example,

 

        curl dict://dict.org/find:curl

 

  Commands that break the URL description of the RFC (but not the DICT

  protocol) are

 

        curl dict://dict.org/show:db

        curl dict://dict.org/show:strat

 

  Authentication is still missing (but this is not required by the RFC)

 

LDAP

 

  If you have installed the OpenLDAP library, curl can take advantage of it

  and offer ldap:// support.

 

  LDAP is a complex thing and writing an LDAP query is not an easy task. I do

  advise you to dig up the syntax description for that elsewhere. Two places

  that might suit you are:

 

  Netscape's "Netscape Directory SDK 3.0 for C Programmer's Guide Chapter 10:

  Working with LDAP URLs":

  http://developer.netscape.com/docs/manuals/dirsdk/csdk30/url.htm

 

  RFC 2255, "The LDAP URL Format" http://curl.haxx.se/rfc/rfc2255.txt

 

  To show you an example, this is how I can get all people from my local LDAP

  server that has a certain sub-domain in their email address:

 

        curl -B "ldap://ldap.frontec.se/o=frontec??sub?mail=*sth.frontec.se"

 

  If I want the same info in HTML format, I can get it by not using the -B

  (enforce ASCII) flag.

 

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

 

  Curl reads and understands the following environment variables:

 

        http_proxy, HTTPS_PROXY, FTP_PROXY

 

  They should be set for protocol-specific proxies. General proxy should be

  set with

 

        ALL_PROXY

 

  A comma-separated list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy is

  set in (only an asterisk, '*' matches all hosts)

 

        NO_PROXY

 

  If the host name matches one of these strings, or the host is within the

  domain of one of these strings, transactions with that node will not be

  proxied.

 

 

  The usage of the -x/--proxy flag overrides the environment variables.

 

NETRC

 

  Unix introduced the .netrc concept a long time ago. It is a way for a user

  to specify name and password for commonly visited FTP sites in a file so

  that you don't have to type them in each time you visit those sites. You

  realize this is a big security risk if someone else gets hold of your

  passwords, so therefore most unix programs won't read this file unless it is

  only readable by yourself (curl doesn't care though).

 

  Curl supports .netrc files if told to (using the -n/--netrc and

  --netrc-optional options). This is not restricted to just FTP,

  so curl can use it for all protocols where authentication is used.

 

  A very simple .netrc file could look something like:

 

        machine curl.haxx.se login iamdaniel password mysecret

 

CUSTOM OUTPUT

 

  To better allow script programmers to get to know about the progress of

  curl, the -w/--write-out option was introduced. Using this, you can specify

  what information from the previous transfer you want to extract.

 

  To display the amount of bytes downloaded together with some text and an

  ending newline:

 

        curl -w 'We downloaded %{size_download} bytes\n' www.download.com

 

KERBEROS FTP TRANSFER

 

  Curl supports kerberos4 and kerberos5/GSSAPI for FTP transfers. You need

  the kerberos package installed and used at curl build time for it to be

  available.

 

  First, get the krb-ticket the normal way, like with the kinit/kauth tool.

  Then use curl in way similar to:

 

        curl --krb private ftp://krb4site.com -u username:fakepwd

 

  There's no use for a password on the -u switch, but a blank one will make

  curl ask for one and you already entered the real password to kinit/kauth.

 

TELNET

 

  The curl telnet support is basic and very easy to use. Curl passes all data

  passed to it on stdin to the remote server. Connect to a remote telnet

  server using a command line similar to:

 

        curl telnet://remote.server.com

 

  And enter the data to pass to the server on stdin. The result will be sent

  to stdout or to the file you specify with -o.

 

  You might want the -N/--no-buffer option to switch off the buffered output

  for slow connections or similar.

 

  Pass options to the telnet protocol negotiation, by using the -t option. To

  tell the server we use a vt100 terminal, try something like:

 

        curl -tTTYPE=vt100 telnet://remote.server.com

 

  Other interesting options for it -t include:

 

   - XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

 

   - NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

 

  NOTE: The telnet protocol does not specify any way to login with a specified

  user and password so curl can't do that automatically. To do that, you need

  to track when the login prompt is received and send the username and

  password accordingly.

 

PERSISTENT CONNECTIONS

 

  Specifying multiple files on a single command line will make curl transfer

  all of them, one after the other in the specified order.

 

  libcurl will attempt to use persistent connections for the transfers so that

  the second transfer to the same host can use the same connection that was

  already initiated and was left open in the previous transfer. This greatly

  decreases connection time for all but the first transfer and it makes a far

  better use of the network.

 

  Note that curl cannot use persistent connections for transfers that are used

  in subsequence curl invokes. Try to stuff as many URLs as possible on the

  same command line if they are using the same host, as that'll make the

  transfers faster. If you use an HTTP proxy for file transfers, practically

  all transfers will be persistent.

 

MULTIPLE TRANSFERS WITH A SINGLE COMMAND LINE

 

  As is mentioned above, you can download multiple files with one command line

  by simply adding more URLs. If you want those to get saved to a local file

  instead of just printed to stdout, you need to add one save option for each

  URL you specify. Note that this also goes for the -O option (but not

  --remote-name-all).

 

  For example: get two files and use -O for the first and a custom file

  name for the second:

 

    curl -O http://url.com/file.txt ftp://ftp.com/moo.exe -o moo.jpg

 

  You can also upload multiple files in a similar fashion:

 

    curl -T local1 ftp://ftp.com/moo.exe -T local2 ftp://ftp.com/moo2.txt

 

IPv6

 

  curl will connect to a server with IPv6 when a host lookup returns an IPv6

  address and fall back to IPv4 if the connection fails. The --ipv4 and --ipv6

  options can specify which address to use when both are available. IPv6

  addresses can also be specified directly in URLs using the syntax:

 

    http://[2001:1890:1112:1::20]/overview.html

 

  When this style is used, the -g option must be given to stop curl from

  interpreting the square brackets as special globbing characters.  Link local

  and site local addresses including a scope identifier, such as fe80::1234%1,

  may also be used, but the scope portion must be numeric and the percent

  character must be URL escaped. The previous example in an SFTP URL might

  look like:

 

    sftp://[fe80::1234%251]/

 

  IPv6 addresses provided other than in URLs (e.g. to the --proxy, --interface

  or --ftp-port options) should not be URL encoded.

 

METALINK

 

  Curl supports Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported), a way

  to list multiple URIs and hashes for a file. Curl will make use of the mirrors

  listed within for failover if there are errors (such as the file or server not

  being available). It will also verify the hash of the file after the download

  completes. The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in memory and

  not stored in the local file system.

 

  Example to use a remote Metalink file:

 

    curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

 

  To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE protocol (file://):

 

    curl --metalink file://example.metalink

 

  Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to use a local

  Metalink file at the time of this writing. Also note that if --metalink and

  --include are used together, --include will be ignored. This is because including

  headers in the response will break Metalink parser and if the headers are included

  in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will fail.

 

MAILING LISTS

 

  For your convenience, we have several open mailing lists to discuss curl,

  its development and things relevant to this. Get all info at

  http://curl.haxx.se/mail/. Some of the lists available are:

 

  curl-users

 

    Users of the command line tool. How to use it, what doesn't work, new

    features, related tools, questions, news, installations, compilations,

    running, porting etc.

 

  curl-library

 

    Developers using or developing libcurl. Bugs, extensions, improvements.

 

  curl-announce

 

    Low-traffic. Only receives announcements of new public versions. At worst,

    that makes something like one or two mails per month, but usually only one

    mail every second month.

 

  curl-and-php

 

    Using the curl functions in PHP. Everything curl with a PHP angle. Or PHP

    with a curl angle.

 

  curl-and-python

 

    Python hackers using curl with or without the python binding pycurl.

 

  Please direct curl questions, feature requests and trouble reports to one of

  these mailing lists instead of mailing any individual.